당신은 주제를 찾고 있습니까 “small sherry barrels for sale – Aging Rye Whiskey in A Cream Sherry Cured Small Oak Barrel – Red Head Oak Barrels“? 다음 카테고리의 웹사이트 You.aseanseafoodexpo.com 에서 귀하의 모든 질문에 답변해 드립니다: https://you.aseanseafoodexpo.com/blog. 바로 아래에서 답을 찾을 수 있습니다. 작성자 Steve Mayes 이(가) 작성한 기사에는 조회수 2,084회 및 좋아요 20개 개의 좋아요가 있습니다.
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This is a batch I made using a cream sherry to cure the barrel and give it some flavor. Then I aged a rye whiskey (High West Whiskey) in the barrel. Came very nice with some good sweet notes along with the peppery rye flavor. Turned out very good.
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Date Published: 3/12/2021
Sherry – barrel-shop.com
The small sherry barrels of new European oak are first steamed by us to soften the existing tannin. Then they are filled for up to 12 months with sherry of …
Date Published: 12/3/2022
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Sherry Barrels – OAKBARRELS.SHOP
We offer our freshly emptied sherry casks from a variety of sherry types. Sherry barrels are eal for maturing beer, whiskey, gin and all other distillates …
Date Published: 2/4/2021
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Sherry barrel for sale ✓ Vintage Oak Whiskey Wine Cask Barrel Tap & Stand Garden Interior Decor Beautiful: 0.99 £ | sherry barrel: 6.00 £ | Gilbey Vintners …
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주제와 관련된 더 많은 사진을 참조하십시오 Aging Rye Whiskey in A Cream Sherry Cured Small Oak Barrel – Red Head Oak Barrels. 댓글에서 더 많은 관련 이미지를 보거나 필요한 경우 더 많은 관련 기사를 볼 수 있습니다.
주제에 대한 기사 평가 small sherry barrels for sale
- Author: Steve Mayes
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- Date Published: 2019. 2. 25.
- Video Url link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_cxKSR_PuI
What barrels are used for sherry?
Also, Sherry makers simply don’t want wood flavors and tannins in Sherry wines. To avoid that, Sherry makers commonly use 600-liter oak barrels (three times bigger than standard American Bourbon barrels) for a lower wine-to-wood ratio.
How many Litres are in a small barrel?
In the oil industry, an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, which is about 159 litres, or 35 imperial gallons.
What is a small wooden barrel called?
They are traditionally made of wooden staves and bound by wooden or metal hoops. The word vat is often used for large containers for liquids, usually alcoholic beverages; a small barrel or cask is known as a keg.
How many Litres is a sherry butt?
Butt (approx. 475-500 litres | ~302-350 LPA): Butts are the most commonly used type of cask in the sherry industry, and thus, apart from those having previously held bourbon, the type of cask most commonly utilised for maturing Scotch whisky.
Why are sherry barrels black?
Oloroso casks are the most widely used sherry casks in the whisky industry. Oloroso is a dry sherry wine, oxidatively aged—meaning the wine comes into contact with oxygen—and as a result is full and dark in color.
How long is sherry matured for?
In accordance with the Pliego de Condiciones the ageing of sherry wines must be prolonged for a minimum period of two years. Frequently, the ageing time is much longer so that the wines may develop the distinctive characteristics of each type.
Is there a difference between a barrel and a cask?
The answer is no, there is no real tangible difference between a cask and a barrel and the words can be used interchangeably. In fact, the definition of the word cask actually refers to a large barrel used for the storage of liquid.
What can you put in a barrel to make it lighter?
Answer to the riddle is a window.
What is the difference between barrel and barrique?
A barrique is a barrel or cask, and the term typically refers to a particular size and shape of a barrel. The barrique originated in Bordeaux, and it traditionally holds 225 liters, or 59 gallons.
How much does a wooden barrel cost?
An oak barrel can range in price from $900 all the way up to $2,000 depending on if it is made from American Oak or French Oak.
What sizes do wine barrels come in?
There are a few different barrel sizes, each with slightly different capacities and named after the regions they originated from: Bordeaux (225L) – commonly referred to as a ‘barrique – Burgundy (228L), and Cognac (300L).
What is a foudre barrel?
A foudre is a large wooden vat, popular in France’s Rhône Valley, significantly larger than typical oak barrels, often with the capacity to hold more than a thousand litres of wine. Using a larger vat or barrel than a typical barrique means there is less wine to wood exposure, meaning less obvious wood or oak flavours.
How big is a small cask?
The kilderkin (from the Dutch for “small cask”) is equal to half a barrel or two firkins. The ale kilderkin likewise underwent various redefinitions. Initially 16 ale or beer gallons (73.94 L), it was redefined in 1688 as 17 ale or beer gallons (78.56 L) and again in 1803 as 18 ale or beer gallons (83.18 L).
How many bottles are in a sherry butt?
How many bottles are in a whisky Butt? The next biggest barrel size is a butt. Butts can hold 475-500 litres of liquid and are the most common ex-sherry casks to be used in maturing Scotch whisky. From these casks you can expect 678-714 70cl bottles or 633-666 75cl bottles.
Why is it called a hogshead?
The name hogshead originally derives from a 15th century English term ‘hogges hede’, which referred to a unit of measurement equivalent to 63 gallons (considerably larger than a modern day hogshead which is officially 54 imperial gallons). A standard British brewing industry measure and barrel size.
Is sherry aged in oak barrels?
But the versatile wine is enjoying a rebirth, showing up in craft cocktails and refreshing summer spritzers, or paired with finely sliced ham and cheese. (It’s very food-friendly.) Like whiskey and other spirits, sherry is aged in wooden barrels or casks.
What is the most common Ageing system used for sherry production?
Sherry has a unique and rather complex system of maturation using a large number of casks and fractional blending. This system is called solera and it is used in the production of all types of sherry, dry or sweet.
What is the difference between sherry cask and bourbon cask?
The great whisky writer Michael Jackson suggested that sherry casks add a nutty smoothness to the whisky while bourbon casks impart caramel and vanilla. Smooth, rich, infused with dried fruits and spice all commonly describe sherry-cask aged whiskies. Sweet and creamy tend to describe bourbon aged ones.
Are sherry casks charred?
Bourbon casks are generally charred for around 40 seconds to 1 minute, although it can be for longer. Sherry barrels, on the other hand, are toasted rather than charred.
Used wooden barrels: Notches in the wood or, in certain circumstances, an uneven base, do not constitute a quality defect, but stem from the idiosyncrasies of the production method and the prior use of the barrels. The usage of the barrel… learn more
A Whisky Beginner’s Guide to Sherry Casks
Remember the first time you went to an Asian restaurant? You got the menu and went straight to the drink section, like a serious alcohol connoisseur would. Then you read: Baijiu, Mijiu, sake, Shōchū, soju, Umeshu… Wait. What are these spirits? They are all rice wine, right? Or not?
If you have ever found yourself in this situation, you’ll likely empathize with how confused I was when I started drinking whisky. The inconsistent labeling practices did not help this Chinese girl at all! Case in point: I used to think Sherry, Oloroso, and Pedro Ximénez casks are three completely different things. It took me some careful research to realize that Sherry is a category of Spanish wine and that the Sherry casks used in whisky aging may have never held Sherry (just like Le Chiffre’s Montenegro poker tournament in Casino Royale was never filmed in Montenegro)!
In my defense: of all the things I ate and drank as a young adult, grape wine just didn’t make the list. Cultural differences have presented a lot of challenges to me in my whisky learning journey, especially in the very beginning when I didn’t know what I didn’t know. Although I’m lucky to be surrounded by many helpful malt mates, the fragmentation of information still makes learning very frustrating at times.
To restore your faith in my credibility, I’m sharing with you my version of Sherry Cask Bootcamp. Just so you know before you proceed: I don’t have certificates in WSET Level 1 or 2 or 3. Nor do I have any formal training in the whisky industry or close industry contacts. All I have is five years of PhD training; I’ve channeled those research skills to pursue my passion for whisky. Oh well, that’s all just a nice way to “position” myself and “package” this article.
Plainly speaking, this is a summary of my study notes on sherry casks. It is written for those who are new to whisky, or have never set foot in the Macallan distillery. If you decide to read on, brace yourself! Pour a dram, because some parts can be very dry (sorry for the Sherry pun). To our sophisticated, longtime Malt readers: there is probably nothing you don’t already know. Feel free to skip to the end, where a review of an 11-year-old Edradour matured in Sherry Oloroso casks awaits.
Sherry: What This Chinese Girl Got Wrong (featuring A Cheat Sheet)
First things first, what is Sherry? Like Scotch for whiskies produced in Scotland, Sherry refers to aged wines produced in the wine-growing region of Jerez, Spain. It is worth noting that not all the wines produced in this region can be labelled as Sherry. The production has to follow the specific processes set by Consejo Regulador (Regulatory Council). In addition, with the latest regulatory update, Sherry no longer has to be fortified (adding a distilled spirit into the wine). However, it still has to contain a minimum alcohol strength of 15 degrees.
When you dine at a restaurant and see labels such as Jerez (the Spanish word for Sherry) and Xérès (the French equivalent), rest assured that they all refer to Sherry. Just a friendly tip: don’t ask for “a glass of Sherry.” That’s where I got it wrong! Sherry is, in fact, a collective term for 8 different wine styles: Fino, Manzanilla, Amontillado, Palo Cortado, Oloroso, Pedro Ximénez, Moscatel, and Cream (which can be further categorized into Medium, Pale Cream, and Cream Sherry). These styles mainly differ in: (a) production location (Fino vs Manzanilla), (b) grape varieties (traditionally Palomino Fino, Pedro Ximénez, or Moscatel. The new regulation has included six more varieties), and (c) aging process (biological aging and/or oxidative aging). Of all the Sherry wine styles, six are most relevant to whisky. Therefore, I’ve made a cheat sheet for the characteristics of these six Sherry wine styles.
The Real Sherry Casks
To understand why people lament the quality of Sherry casks used in whisky maturation nowadays, let’s take a step back and talk about the OG. What are Sherry casks, really?
American white oak is often used to make barrels for the aging of Sherry, because it is widely available, provides good breathability, and is low in tannins. Now comes the surprise (at least to me)! Although new oak barrels might be used at the fermentation stage (a practice that has mostly been replaced by steel tanks), Sherry is actually aged in old, inactive oak barrels.
Unlike other wine makers who try to “arrange a perfect marriage” between wood and fermented grape liquid, Sherry makers want the oak barrels without the wood impact. Why is that so? It is said that wood tannins tend to inhibit florduring the aging process. Also, Sherry makers simply don’t want wood flavors and tannins in Sherry wines. To avoid that, Sherry makers commonly use 600-liter oak barrels (three times bigger than standard American Bourbon barrels) for a lower wine-to-wood ratio.
In addition, before an oak barrel is “qualified” for the job of Sherry maturation, it has to be first used to ferment grape musts or to age young fortified wines for a minimum of 3 years by law (but often much longer in practice). That means that by the time an oak barrel is used to age Sherry, the impact of wood has more or less been exhausted. In fact, Sherry doesn’t get flavors from oak barrels. Instead, it gets flavors mainly through oxidization. It might also soak up some aromas from the young fortified wines previously aged in these oak barrels.
Sherry Casks in Whisky Maturation
Now you know the specific requirements of oak barrels for Sherry maturation. You might think, like Bourbon casks, the Sherry casks used in whisky maturation are the oak barrels retired from Sherry maturation, right? Nope! Not even in the good old days! This was another revelation to me.
In the good old days, the Sherry casks used in whisky maturation were oak barrels used to transport aged Sherry from Spain to UK. Originally made from European oak, these transport casks had a capacity of 500 liters. Similar to the oak barrels for Sherry maturation, these transport casks were first used for fermentation or short periods of maturation, so as to reduce wood impact during transportation. Then, they were filled with aged Sherry and shipped to UK. Until the aged Sherry was bottled, it could stay in these transport casks for up to several months. During this process, a good amount of aged Sherry would seep into the wood pores. As you may guess, it didn’t make economic sense to ship these empty transport casks back to Spain. So, they were sold to the whisky industry for re-use.
Sadly, in 1986, the Spanish introduced a law dictating that all Sherry wines shall be bottled in Spain, effectively putting an end to transportation and transport casks. I should mention that, before this law, there were already practices to make barrels that mimic the effects of those Sherry-seasoned transport casks. But this law has, unintentionally, turned these practices into large-scale business operations involving three parties. Whisky distilleries specify their cask requirements – the wood type, the toasting level, the type of Sherry used for seasoning, and etc. Spanish cooperages produce new oak casks accordingly. Once they’re done, the new oak casks are sent to Spanish bodegas for Sherry seasoning.
The Certified “Sherry Cask” Guarantee Label
In 2015, Consejo Regulador registered the “Sherry Cask” brand and drafted a document to regulate the production of Sherry-seasoned casks for quality control. To obtain the “Sherry Cask” guarantee label, the production of Sherry-seasoned casks should meet the following criteria:
The cask has to be filled to at least 85% of the total volume, with a certified Sherry wine made by bodegas registered with Consejo Regulador.
The cask has to continuously hold the wine at the required fill level throughout the entire seasoning process. This means bodegas can’t empty the cask and re-fill it with other wines in between.
The minimum seasoning period is one year.
Well, we all can read regulations. What comes now is me reading between the lines. There are three factors that will affect the quality of a Sherry cask but are not specified by Consejo Regulador:
Age of Sherry: Although the wine has to be a certified Sherry, there’s no regulation about the wine age. Word has it that producers typically use 2-year-old Sherry wines.
Re-use of Sherry: Furthermore, there’s no regulation about how many times the same wine can be re-used for seasoning! In practice, it is often re-used for several times before being discarded or being used to distill Sherry brandy or Sherry vinegar. Theoretically, a cask seasoned with a “virgin” wine can be quite different from a cask seasoned with a re-used wine, as a re-used wine contains more wood tannins.
Transportation: There’s no regulation about how the casks should be transported, either. Should they be transported dry? Should they be transported with Sherry? How much Sherry should these casks contain during transportation? These are, again, up to whisky distilleries.
Whisky distilleries typically have a say in these factors when making an order. Or, at least, they know what casks they are paying for. But I guess such information is too wordy for the aesthetics of their fancy product packaging; and it takes them too much effort to put it online.
An Overview and Comparison of Sherry Casks The Real Sherry Cask for Sherry Maturation Transport Cask for Sherry Transportation Today’s Certified Sherry Cask for Whisky Maturation Wood American oak European oak Both, although American oak is commonly used now Volume 600 liters 500 liters Typically 250 liters (aka hogsheads) Treatment before Its Intended Use Used for least 3 years to ferment grape musts or age young fortified wines. Used to ferment grape musts or age young fortified wines for a short period of time. Seasoned with a certified Sherry wine (often 2 year old) for at least one year. Implications for Whisky Maturation These casks are rarely used in whisky maturation. Just forget it! Aged Sherry is absorbed into wood pores. Young Sherry is absorbed into wood pores.
Edradour 2008 11 Year Old Sherry Cask (The Whisky Exchange Exclusive) – Review
58.3% ABV. Distilled: 28th November 2008. Bottled: 8th May 2020. Cask Number: 372. £79.95.
Color: Dark mahogany.
On the nose: Wafting into my nose first are coffee candy, chocolate, cherried liqueur, and dried dates. Time reveals sweet beef jerky and mulled wine spices, alongside hints of red apple and leather. Water brings out gentle sweetness, with notes of banana walnut bread, hazelnuts, and licorice.
In the mouth: The texture is silky like chocolate fondue, minus the decadent mouthfeel. Opening on dried dates, caramel, and red apple. Mid-palate presents warming Christmas spices — it is more of an elegant blend-in than an aggressive take-over. With water, I get more fruitcake and brown sugar. As the whisky finishes, the taste gets slightly oaky.
This is definitely not a Sherry bomb, but in a good way! The aromas are multi-layered and well-integrated. At cask strength, the liquid is more reserved with slightly muted flavors. A spoonful of water, or maybe two, significantly opens up the palate. Personally, I think it is a textbook example of a well-balanced Sherried whisky. Edradour has done it again, delivering us a quality whisky at a reasonable price. If you are looking for a Christmas present for a whisky lover, look no further!
Series of units for volume measurement
“bbl” redirects here. For other uses, see BBL (disambiguation)
Ale casks at a brewery in the UK. These are firkins , each holding 9 imperial gallons (41 l) or a quarter of a UK beer barrel.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the U.K. beer barrel and U.S. beer barrel), oil barrels, and so forth. For historical reasons the volumes of some barrel units are roughly double the volumes of others; volumes in common use range approximately from 100 to 200 litres (22 to 44 imp gal; 26 to 53 US gal). In many connections the term drum is used almost interchangeably with barrel.
Since medieval times the term barrel as a unit of measure has had various meanings throughout Europe, ranging from about 100 litres to about 1,000 litres. The name was derived in medieval times from the French baril, of unknown origin, but still in use, both in French and as derivations in many other languages such as Italian, Polish, and Spanish. In most countries such usage is obsolescent, increasingly superseded by SI units. As a result, the meaning of corresponding words and related concepts (vat, cask, keg etc.) in other languages often refers to a physical container rather than a known measure.
In the international oil market context, however, prices in United States dollars per barrel are commonly used, and the term is variously translated, often to derivations of the Latin / Teutonic root fat (for example vat or Fass).
In other commercial connections, barrel sizes such as beer keg volumes also are standardised in many countries.
Dry goods in the US [ edit ]
US dry barrel : 7,056 cubic inches (115.6 L) ( ≈ 3.28 US bushels) Defined as length of stave 28 + 1 ⁄ 2 in (72 cm), diameter of head 17 + 1 ⁄ 8 in (43 cm), distance between heads 26 in (66 cm), circumference of bulge 64 in (1.6 m) outside measurement; representing as nearly as possible 7,056 cubic inches; and the thickness of staves not greater than 4 ⁄ 10 in (10 mm)  (diameter ≈ 20.37 in or 51.7 cm). Any barrel that is 7,056 cubic inches is recognized as equivalent. This is exactly equal to 26.25 US dry-gallons. 
: 7,056 cubic inches (115.6 L) ( ≈ 3.28 US bushels) US barrel for cranberries 5,826 cubic inches (95.5 L) ( ≈ 2.71 US bushels) Defined as length of stave 28 + 1 ⁄ 2 in (72 cm), diameter of head 16 + 1 ⁄ 4 in (41 cm), distance between heads 25 + 1 ⁄ 4 in (64 cm), circumference of bulge 58 + 1 ⁄ 2 in (1.49 m) outside measurement; and the thickness of staves not greater than 4 ⁄ 10 in (10.16 mm)  (diameter ≈ 18.62 in or 47.3 cm). No equivalent in cubic inches is given in the statute, but later regulations specify it as 5,826 cubic inches. 
5,826 cubic inches (95.5 L) ( ≈ 2.71 US bushels)
Some products have a standard weight or volume that constitutes a barrel:
Cornmeal, 200 pounds (90.7 kg)
Cement (including Portland cement  ), 4 cubic feet (113 L) or 376 pounds (170.6 kg) 
), 4 cubic feet (113 L) or 376 pounds (170.6 kg) Sugar, 5 cubic feet (142 L) (37 US gal)
Wheat or rye flour, three bushels or 196 pounds (88.9 kg)
Lime (mineral), 280 pounds (127 kg) large barrel, or 180 pounds (81.6 kg) small barrel 
Butter and cheese in UK, 224 pounds (102 kg) 
Salt, 280 pounds (130 kg)
Fluid barrel in the US and UK [ edit ]
Fluid barrels vary depending on what is being measured and where. In the UK a beer barrel is 36 imperial gallons (43 US gal; 164 L). In the US most fluid barrels (apart from oil) are 31.5 US gallons (26 imp gal; 119 L) (half a hogshead), but a beer barrel is 31 US gallons (26 imp gal; 117 L). The size of beer kegs in the US is based loosely on fractions of the US beer barrel. When referring to beer barrels or kegs in many countries, the term may be used for the commercial package units independent of actual volume, where common range for professional use is 20–60 L, typically a DIN or Euro keg of 50 L.
History [ edit ]
Richard III, King of England from 1483 until 1485, had defined the wine puncheon as a cask holding 84 gallons and a wine tierce as holding 42 gallons. Custom had made the 42 gallon watertight tierce a standard container for shipping eel, salmon, herring, molasses, wine, whale oil, and many other commodities in the English colonies by 1700. After the American Revolution in 1776, American merchants continued to use the same size barrels.
Oil barrel [ edit ]
“Blue barrel” redirects here. For the cactus known as the “blue barrel cactus”, see Echinocactus horizonthalonius
In the oil industry, an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, which is about 159 litres, or 35 imperial gallons.
Oil companies that are listed on American stock exchanges typically report their production in terms of volume and use the units bbl (one barrel), or kbbl or Mbbl (one kilobarrel, one thousand barrels), or MMbbl (one million barrels), and occasionally for wider comprehensive statistics Gbbl (or sometimes Gbl), for giga-barrel (one billion barrels). There is a conflict concerning the units for oil barrels (see § Definitions and units). For all other physical quantities, according to the International System of Units, the uppercase letter “M” means “mega-” (“one million”), for example: MHz (one million hertz, or megahertz), MW (one million watts, or megawatt), MeV (one million electronvolt, or megaelectronvolt). But due to tradition, the Mbbl acronym is used today meaning “one thousand bbl”, as a heritage of the roman number “M” for Latin “mille” meaning “one thousand”. On the other hand, there are efforts to avoid this ambiguity, and most of the barrel dealers today prefer to use kbbl, instead of Mbbl, mbbl, MMbbl or mmbbl.
Outside the United States, volumes of oil are usually reported in cubic metres (m3) instead of oil barrels. Cubic metre is the basic volume unit in the International System. In Canada, oil companies measure oil in cubic metres, but convert to barrels on export, since most of Canada’s oil production is exported to the US. The nominal conversion factor is 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels, but conversion is generally done by custody transfer meters on the border, since the volumes are specified at different temperatures, and the exact conversion factor depends on both density and temperature. Canadian companies operate internally and report to Canadian governments in cubic metres, but often convert to US barrels for the benefit of American investors and oil marketers. They generally quote prices in Canadian dollars per cubic metre to other Canadian companies, but use US dollars per barrel in financial reports and press statements, making it appear to the outside world that they operate in barrels.
Companies on the European stock exchanges report the mass of oil in tonnes. Since different varieties of petroleum have different densities, however, there is not a single conversion between mass and volume. For example, one tonne of heavy distillates might occupy a volume of 6.1 barrels (970 litres; 256 US gallons). In contrast, one tonne of crude oil might occupy 6.5 barrels (1,030 litres; 273 US gallons), and one tonne of gasoline will require 7.9 barrels (1,260 litres; 332 US gallons). Overall, the conversion is usually between 6 and 8 barrels (954 and 1,270 litres; 252 and 336 US gallons) per tonne.
History [ edit ]
The measurement of an “oil barrel” originated in the early Pennsylvania oil fields. The Drake Well, the first oil well in the US, was drilled in Pennsylvania in 1859, and an oil boom followed in the 1860s. When oil production began, there was no standard container for oil, so oil and petroleum products were stored and transported in barrels of different shapes and sizes. Some of these barrels would originally have been used for other products, such as beer, fish, molasses, or turpentine. Both the 42-US-gallon (159 L) barrels (based on the old English wine measure), the tierce (159 litres) and the 40-US-gallon (151.4 L) whiskey barrels were used. Also, 45-US-gallon (170 L) barrels were in common use. The 40 gallon whiskey barrel was the most common size used by early oil producers, since they were readily available at the time.
Around 1866, early oil producers in Pennsylvania came to the conclusion that shipping oil in a variety of different containers was causing buyer distrust. They decided they needed a standard unit of measure to convince buyers that they were getting a fair volume for their money, and settled on the standard wine tierce, which was two gallons larger than the standard whisky barrel. The Weekly Register, an Oil City, Pennsylvania newspaper, stated on August 31, 1866 that “the oil producers have issued the following circular”:
Whereas, It is conceded by all producers of crude petroleum on Oil Creek that the present system of selling crude oil by the barrel, without regard to the size, is injurious to the oil trade, alike to the buyer and seller, as buyers, with an ordinary sized barrel cannot compete with those with large ones. We, therefore, mutually agree and bind ourselves that from this date we will sell no crude by the barrel or package, but by the gallon only. An allowance of two gallons will be made on the gauge of each and every 40 gallons in favor of the buyer.
And by that means, King Richard III’s English wine tierce became the American standard oil barrel.
By 1872, the standard oil barrel was firmly established as 42 US-gallons. The 42 gallon standard oil barrel was officially adopted by the Petroleum Producers Association in 1872 and by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1882.
In modern times, many different types of oil, chemicals, and other products are transported in steel drums. In the United States, these commonly have a capacity of 55 US gallons (208 L) and are referred to as such. They are called 210 litre or 200 kg drums outside the United States. In the United Kingdom and its former dependencies, a 44-imperial-gallon (200 L) drum is used, even though all those countries now officially use the metric system and the drums are filled to 200 litres. Thus, the 42 US-gallon oil barrel is a unit of measure, and is no longer a physical container used to transport crude oil, as most petroleum is moved in pipelines or oil tankers. In the United States, the 42 US-gallon size of barrel as a unit of measure is largely confined to the oil industry, while different sizes of barrel are used in other industries. Nearly all other countries use the metric system.
Definitions and units [ edit ]
The abbreviations Mbbl and MMbbl refer to one thousand and one million barrels respectively. These are derived from the Latin “mille”, meaning “thousand”. This is different from the SI convention where “M” stands for the Greek “mega”, meaning “million”. Outside of the oil industry, the unit Mbbl (megabarrel) can sometimes stand for one million barrels. The “b” may have been doubled originally to indicate the plural (1 bl, 2 bbl), or possibly it was doubled to eliminate any confusion with bl as a symbol for the bale. Some sources assert that “bbl” originated as a symbol for “blue barrels” delivered by Standard Oil in its early days. However, while Ida Tarbell’s 1904 Standard Oil Company history acknowledged the “holy blue barrel”, the abbreviation “bbl” had been in use well before the 1859 birth of the U.S. petroleum industry.
Oil wells recover not just oil from the ground, but also natural gas and water. The term barrels of liquid per day (BLPD) refers to the total volume of liquid that is recovered. Similarly, barrels of oil equivalent or BOE is a value that accounts for both oil and natural gas while ignoring any water that is recovered.
Other terms are used when discussing only oil. These terms can refer to either the production of crude oil at an oil well, the conversion of crude oil to other products at an oil refinery, or the overall consumption of oil by a region or country. One common term is barrels per day (BPD, BOPD, bbl/d, bpd, bd, or b/d), where 1 BPD is equivalent to 0.0292 gallons per minute. One BPD also becomes 49.8 tonnes per year. At an oil refinery, production is sometimes reported as barrels per calendar day (b/cd or bcd), which is total production in a year divided by the days in that year. Likewise, barrels per stream day (BSD or BPSD) is the quantity of oil product produced by a single refining unit during continuous operation for 24 hours.[a]
Burning one tonne of light, synthetic, or heavy crude yields 38.51, 39.40, or 40.90 GJ (thermal) respectively (10.70, 10.94, or 11.36 MW·h), so 1 tonne per day of synthetic crude is about 456 kW of thermal power and 1 bpd of synthetic crude is about 378 kW (slightly less for light crude, slightly more for heavy crude).
Accuracy when converting from barrel to cubic metre [ edit ]
When used to denote a volume, one barrel is exactly 42 US gallons and is easily converted to any other unit of volume. As the US gallon since 1893 is defined as 3.785411784 litre, a volume of one barrel is exactly 158.987294928 litres. Using the approximate value 159 litre is about 0.008% off.
In the oil industry, following the definition of the American Petroleum Institute, a standard barrel of oil is often taken to mean the amount of oil that at a standard pressure 14.696 pounds per square inch (101.325 kPa) and temperature 60 °F (15.6 °C) would occupy a volume of exactly 1 barrel (159 L). This standard barrel of oil will occupy a different volume at different pressures and temperatures. A standard barrel in this context is thus not simply a measure of volume, but of volume under specific conditions. The task of converting this standard barrel of oil to a standard cubic metre of oil is complicated by the fact that the standard cubic metre is defined by the American Petroleum Institute to mean the amount of oil that at 101.325 kPa and 15 °C (59.0 °F) occupies 1 cubic metre. The fact that the conditions are not exactly the same means that an exact conversion is impossible unless the exact expansion coefficient of the crude is known, and this will vary from one crude oil to another.
For a light oil with density of 850 kilogram per cubic metre (API gravity of 35),[b] warming the oil from 15.00 °C (59.00 °F) to 60.00 °F (15.56 °C) might increase its volume by about 0.047%. Conversely, a heavy oil with a density of 934 kg/m3 (API gravity of 20) might only increase in volume by 0.039%. If physically measuring the density at a new temperature is not possible, then tables of empirical data can be used to accurately predict the change in density. In turn, this allows maximum accuracy when converting between standard barrel and standard cubic metre. The logic above also implies the same level of accuracy in measurements for barrels if there is a 1 °F (0.56 °C) error in measuring the temperature at time of measuring the volume.
For ease of trading, communication and financial accounting, international commodity exchanges often set a conversion factor for benchmark crude oils. For instance the conversion factor set by the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) for Western Canadian Select (WCS) crude oil traded at Hardisty, Alberta, Canada is 6.29287 U.S. barrels per cubic metre, despite the uncertainty in converting the volume for crude oil. Regulatory authorities in producing countries set standards for measurement accuracy of produced hydrocarbons, where such measurements affect taxes or royalties to the government. In the United Kingdom, for instance, the measurement accuracy required is ±0.25%.
Qualifiers [ edit ]
A barrel can technically be used to specify any volume. Since the actual nature of the fluids being measured varies along the stream, sometimes qualifiers are used to clarify what is being specified. In the oil field, it is often important to differentiate between rates of production of fluids, which may be a mix of oil and water, and rates of production of the oil itself. If a well is producing 10 mbd of fluids with a 20% water cut, then the well would also be said to be producing 8,000 barrels of oil a day (bod).
In other circumstances, it can be important to include gas in production and consumption figures. Normally, gas amount is measured in standard cubic feet or cubic metres for volume (as well as in kg or Btu, which don’t depend on pressure or temperature). But when necessary, such volume is converted to a volume of oil of equivalent enthalpy of combustion. Production and consumption using this analogue is stated in barrels of oil equivalent per day (boed).
In the case of water-injection wells, in the United States it is common to refer to the injectivity rate in barrels of water per day (bwd). In Canada, it is measured in cubic metres per day (m3/d). In general, water injection rates will be stated in the same units as oil production rates, since the usual objective is to replace the volume of oil produced with a similar volume of water to maintain reservoir pressure.
See also [ edit ]
Notes [ edit ]
^ Barrels per stream day [′bar·əlz pər ¦strēm ‚dā] (chemical engineering) A measurement used to denote rate of oil or oil-product flow while a fluid-processing unit is in continuous operation. Abbreviated BSD. [′bar·əlz pər ¦strēm ‚dā] (chemical engineering) A measurement used to denote rate of oil or oil-product flow while a fluid-processing unit is in continuous operation. Abbreviated BSD. ^
where SG is API gravity calculated from density_oil as API_g = (141.5 / SG ) − 131.5,where SG is specific gravity = density_oil / density_water.
Hollow cylindrical container
“Cask” redirects here. For other uses, see Cask (disambiguation)
Traditional oak barrels made by Chilean cooperage Tonelería Nacional
Wooden wine barrel at an exhibition in Croatia
A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, longer than it is wide. They are traditionally made of wooden staves and bound by wooden or metal hoops. The word vat is often used for large containers for liquids, usually alcoholic beverages; a small barrel or cask is known as a keg.
Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are made of French common oak (Quercus robur), white oak (Quercus petraea), American white oak (Quercus alba), more exotic is Mizunara Oak all typically have standard sizes: Recently Oregon Oak (Quercus Garryana) has been used.
“Bordeaux type” 225 litres (59 US gal; 49 imp gal),
“Burgundy type” 228 litres (60 US gal; 50 imp gal) and
“Cognac type” 300 litres (79 US gal; 66 imp gal).
Modern barrels and casks can also be made of aluminum, stainless steel, and different types of plastic, such as HDPE.
Someone who makes barrels is called a “barrel maker” or cooper (coopers also make buckets, vats, tubs, butter churns, hogsheads, firkins, kegs, kilderkins, tierces, rundlets, puncheons, pipes, tuns, butts, pins, troughs and breakers).
Barrels have a variety of uses, including storage of liquids such as water, oil, and alcohol arrack, and sake. They are also employed to hold maturing beverages such as wine, cognac, armagnac, sherry, port, whiskey, and beer. Other commodities once stored in wooden casks include gunpowder, meat, fish, paint, honey, nails and tallow.
Early casks were bound with wooden hoops and in the 19th century these were gradually replaced by metal hoops that were stronger, more durable and took up less space. The term barrel can also refer to roughly cylindrical containers or drums made of modern materials like plastic, steel or aluminium.
The barrel has also been used as a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons (160 L; 43 US gal). Wine was shipped in barrels of 119 litres (31 US gal; 26 imp gal). A barrel of oil, defined as 42 US gallons (35 imp gal; 160 L), is still used as a measure of volume for oil, although oil is no longer shipped in barrels. The barrel has also come into use as a generic term for a wooden cask of any size.
History [ edit ]
An Egyptian wall-painting in the tomb of Hesy-Ra, dating to 2600 BC, shows a wooden tub made of staves, bound together with wooden hoops, and used to measure wheat. Another Egyptian tomb painting dating to 1900 BC shows a cooper and tubs made of staves in use at the grape harvest. Palm-wood casks were also reported in use in ancient Babylon. In Europe, buckets and casks dating to 200 BC have been found preserved in the mud of lake villages. A lake village near Glastonbury dating to the late Iron Age has yielded one complete tub and a number of wooden staves.
The Roman historian Pliny the Elder reports that cooperage in Europe originated with the Gauls in Alpine villages where they stored their beverages in wooden casks bound with hoops. Pliny identified three different types of coopers: ordinary coopers, wine coopers and coopers who made large casks. Large casks contain more and bigger staves and are correspondingly more difficulty to assemble. Roman coopers tended to be independent tradesmen, passing their skills on to their sons. The Greek geographer Strabo records that wooden pithoi (barrels) were lined with pitch to stop leakage and preserve the wine.
Barrels were sometimes used for military purposes. Julius Caesar used catapults to hurl burning barrels of tar into towns under siege to start fires. The Romans also used empty barrels to make pontoon bridges to cross rivers.
Pyramidal pile of herring barrels in Scheveningen , the Netherlands
Empty casks were used to line the walls of shallow wells from at least Roman times. Such casks were found in 1897 during archaeological excavation in Britain of Roman Silchester. They were made of Pyrenean silver fir and the staves were one and a half inches thick and featured grooves where the heads fitted. They had Roman numerals scratched on the surface of each stave to help with reassembly.
In Anglo-Saxon Britain, wooden barrels were used to store ale, butter, honey and mead. Drinking containers were also made from small staves of oak, yew or pine. These items required considerable craftsmanship to hold liquids and might be bound with finely worked precious metals. They were highly valued items and were sometimes buried with the dead as grave goods. Churns, buckets and tubs made from staves have been excavated from peat bogs and lake villages in Europe. A large keg and a bucket were found in the Viking Gokstad ship excavated near Oslo Fiord in 1880.
Uses today [ edit ]
Beverage maturing [ edit ]
Wine barrels in Napa Valley, California
This Mercier oak barrel with a capacity of 200,000 Champagne bottles was created for the 1889 world exposition in Paris
An “ageing barrel” is used to age wine; distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum; beer; tabasco sauce; or (in smaller sizes) traditional balsamic vinegar. When a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in (compare to microoxygenation where oxygen is deliberately added). Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation, a portion known as the “angels’ share”. In an environment with 100% relative humidity, very little water evaporates and so most of the loss is alcohol, a useful trick if one has a wine with very high proof. Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune and sherry are not.
Beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these compounds depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried, and the degree of “toast” applied during manufacture. Barrels used for aging are typically made of French or American oak, but chestnut and redwood are also used. Some Asian beverages (e.g., Japanese sake) use Japanese cedar, which imparts an unusual, minty-piney flavor. In Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in oak or in earthenware.
Wines [ edit ]
Some wines are fermented “on barrel”, as opposed to in a neutral container like steel or wine-grade HDPE (high-density polyethylene) tanks. Wine can also be fermented in large wooden tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called “open-tops”. Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, with either elliptical or round heads.
The tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are slightly different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas. To retain the desired measure of oak influence, a winery will replace a certain percentage of its barrels every year, although this can vary from 5 to 100%. Some winemakers use “200% new oak”, where the wine is put into new oak barrels twice during the aging process. Bulk wines are sometimes more cheaply flavored by soaking in oak chips or added commercial oak flavoring instead of being aged in a barrel because of the much lower cost.
Sherry [ edit ]
Sherry barrel made with glass barrel head to show the layer of flor floating on top of the aging wine
Sherry is stored in 600-litre (130 imp gal; 160 US gal) casks made of North American oak, which is slightly more porous than French or Spanish oak. The casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving “the space of two fists” empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. Sherry is also commonly swapped between barrels of different ages, a process that is known as solera.
Spirits [ edit ]
Whiskey [ edit ]
Charred white oak barrels are filled with new bourbon whiskey and resting in a rack house for a period of typically 4 to 9 years (for good-quality bourbon), with the char giving the bourbon its characteristic copper color.
Laws in several jurisdictions require that whiskey be aged in wooden barrels. The law in the United States requires that “straight whiskey” (with the exception of corn whiskey) must be stored for at least two years in new, charred oak containers. Other forms of whiskey aged in used barrels cannot be called “straight”.
International laws require any whisky bearing the label “Scotch” to be distilled and matured in Scotland for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks.
By Canadian law, Canadian whiskies must “be aged in small wood for not less than three years”, and “small wood” is defined as a wood barrel not exceeding 700 litres (150 imp gal; 180 US gal) capacity.
Since the U.S. law requires the use of new barrels for several popular types of whiskey, which is not typically considered necessary elsewhere, whiskey made elsewhere is usually aged in used barrels that previously contained American whiskey (usually bourbon whiskey). The typical bourbon barrel is 53 US gallons (200 l; 44 imp gal) in size, which is thus the de facto standard whiskey barrel size worldwide. Some distillers transfer their whiskey into different barrels to “finish” or add qualities to the final product. These finishing barrels frequently aged a different spirit (such as rum) or wine. Other distillers, particularly those producing Scotch, often disassemble five used bourbon barrels and reassemble them into four casks with different barrel ends for aging Scotch, creating a type of cask referred to as a hogshead.
Brandy [ edit ]
Maturing is very important for a good brandy, which is typically aged in oak casks. The wood used for those barrels is selected because of its ability to transfer certain aromas to the spirit. Cognac is aged only in oak casks made from wood from the Forest of Tronçais and more often from the Limousin forests.
Tequila [ edit ]
Some types of tequila are aged in oak barrels to mellow its flavor. “Reposado” tequila is aged for a period of two months to one year, “Añejo” tequila is aged for up to three years, and “Extra Añejo” tequila is aged for at least three years. Like with other spirits, longer aging results in a more pronounced flavor.
Beer [ edit ]
Beer barrels at the Munich Oktoberfest
Beers are sometimes aged in barrels which were previously used for maturing wines or spirits. This is most common in darker beers such as stout, which is sometimes aged in oak barrels identical to those used for whiskey. Whisky distiller Jameson notably purchases barrels used by Franciscan Well brewery for their Shandon Stout to produce a whisky branded as “Jameson Caskmates”. Cask ale is aged in the barrel (usually steel) for a short time before serving. Extensive barrel aging is required of many sour beers.
Condiments [ edit ]
Balsamic vinegar [ edit ]
Traditional balsamic vinegar is aged in a series of wooden barrels.
Tabasco sauce [ edit ]
Since its invention in 1868, the pepper mash used to make Tabasco sauce is aged for three years in previously used oak whiskey barrels.
Soft drinks [ edit ]
Vernors ginger ale is marketed as having a “barrel-aged” flavor, and the syrup used to produce the beverage was originally aged in oak barrels when first manufactured in the 19th century. Whether the syrup continues to be aged in oak is unclear.
Angels’ share [ edit ]
The angels’ share in the sherry aging produces fungus on the walls.
Baudoinia compniacensis on bark, top, with an unaffected sample below The angels’ share fungus,on bark, top, with an unaffected sample below
“Angels’ share” is a term for the portion (share) of a wine or distilled spirit’s volume that is lost to evaporation during aging in oak barrels. The ambient humidity tends to affect the composition of this share. Drier conditions tend to make the barrels evaporate more water, strengthening the spirit. However, in higher humidities, more alcohol than water will evaporate, therefore reducing the alcoholic strength of the product. This alcoholic evaporate encourages the growth of a darkly colored fungus, the angels’ share fungus, Baudoinia compniacensis, which tends to appear on the exterior surfaces of most things in the immediate area.
Water storage [ edit ]
Water barrels are often used to collect the rainwater from dwellings (so that it may be used for irrigation or other purposes). This usage, known as rainwater harvesting, requires (besides a large rainwater barrel or water butt) adequate (waterproof) roof-covering and an adequate rain pipe.
Oil storage [ edit ]
blue 55-US gallon (44 imp gal, 200 L) barrel (drum)
Wooden casks of various sizes were used to store whale oil on ships in the age of sail. Its viscous nature made sperm whale oil a particularly difficult substance to contain in staved containers and oil coopers were probably the most skilled coopers in pre-industrial cooperage. Olive oil, seed oils and other organic oils were also placed in wooden casks for storage or transport.
Wooden casks were also used to store mineral oil. The standard size barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (35.0 imp gal; 159.0 L). This measurement originated in the early Pennsylvania oil fields, and permitted both British and American merchants to refer to the same unit, based on the old English wine measure, the tierce.
Earlier, another size of whiskey barrel was the most common size; this was the 40 US gallons (33.3 imp gal; 151.4 L) barrel for proof spirits, which was of the same volume as five US bushels. However, by 1866, the oil barrel was standardized at 42 US gallons.
Oil has not been shipped in barrels since the introduction of oil tankers, but the 42 US gallon size is still used as a unit of measurement for pricing and tax and regulatory codes. Each barrel is refined into about 20 US gallons (17 imp gal; 76 L) of gasoline, the rest becoming other products such as jet fuel and heating oil, using fractional distillation.
Barrel shape, construction and parts [ edit ]
Wine barrel parts Shaping barrel staves
Barrels have a convex shape and bulge at their center, called bilge. This facilitates rolling a well-built wooden barrel on its side and allows the roller to change directions with little friction, compared to a cylinder. It also helps to distribute stress evenly in the material by making the container more curved. Barrels have reinforced edges to enable safe displacement by rolling them at an angle (in addition to rolling on their sides as described).
A half-completed beer barrel; in wine barrel cooperage this set-up is called “mise en rose”
Casks used for ale or beer have shives and keystones in their openings. Before serving the beer, a spile is hammered into the shive and a tap into the keystone.
The wooden parts that make up a barrel are called staves, the top and bottom are both called heads or headers, and the rings that hold the staves together are called hoops. These are usually made of galvanized iron, though historically they were made of flexible bits of wood called withies. While wooden hoops could require barrels to be “fully hooped”, with hoops stacked tightly together along the entire top and bottom third of a barrel, iron-hooped barrels only require a few hoops on each end.
Wine barrels typically come in two hoop configurations. An American barrel features 6 hoops, from top to center: head- or chime hoop, quarter hoop and bilge hoop (times two), while a French barrel features 8, including a so-called French hoop, located between the quarter- and bilge hoops (see “wine barrel parts” illustration). The opening at the center of a barrel is called a bung hole and the stopper used to seal it is a bung. The latter is generally made of white silicone.
Sizes [ edit ]
A barrel is one of several units of volume, with dry barrels, fluid barrels (UK beer barrel, US beer barrel), oil barrel, etc. The volume of some barrel units is double others, with various volumes in the range of about 100–200 litres (22–44 imp gal; 26–53 US gal).
English wine casks [ edit ]
English wine cask units gallon rundlet barrel tierce hogshead puncheon, tertian pipe, butt tun 1 tun 1 2 pipes, butts 1 1 + 1 ⁄ 2 3 puncheons, tertians 1 1 + 1 ⁄ 3 2 4 hogsheads 1 1 + 1 ⁄ 2 2 3 6 tierces 1 1 + 1 ⁄ 3 2 2 + 2 ⁄ 3 4 8 barrels 1 1 + 3 ⁄ 4 2 + 1 ⁄ 3 3 + 1 ⁄ 2 4 + 2 ⁄ 3 7 14 rundlets 1 18 31 + 1 ⁄ 2 42 63 84 126 252 gallons (wine) 3.785 68.14 119.24 158.99 238.48 317.97 476.96 953.92 litres 1 15 26 + 1 ⁄ 4 35 52 + 1 ⁄ 2 70 105 210 gallons (imperial) 4.546 68.19 119.3 159.1 238.7 318.2 477.3 954.7 litres
Pre-1824 definitions continued to be used in the US, the wine gallon of 231 cubic inches being the standard gallon for liquids (the corn gallon of 268.8 cubic inches for solids). In Britain, the wine gallon was replaced by the imperial gallon. The tierce later became the petrol barrel. The tun was originally 256 gallons, which explains from where the quarter, 8 bushels or 64 (wine) gallons, comes.
Brewery casks [ edit ]
English brewery cask units gallon firkin kilderkin barrel hogshead Year designated 1 hogsheads 1 1 + 1 ⁄ 2 barrels 1 2 3 kilderkins 1 2 4 6 firkins 1 8 16 32 48 ale gallons (1454) = 4.621 L = 36.97 L = 73.94 L = 147.9 L = 221.8 L 1 9 18 36 54 beer gallons = 4.621 L = 41.59 L = 83.18 L = 166.4 L = 249.5 L 1 8 + 1 ⁄ 2 17 34 51 ale gallons 1688 = 4.621 L = 39.28 L = 78.56 L = 157.1 L = 235.7 L 1 9 18 36 54 ale gallons 1803 = 4.621 L = 41.59 L = 83.18 L = 166.4 L = 249.5 L 1 9 18 36 54 imperial gallons 1824 = 4.546 L = 40.91 L = 81.83 L = 163.7 L = 245.5 L
Although it is common to refer to draught beer containers of any size as barrels, in the UK this is strictly correct only if the container holds 36 imperial gallons. The terms “keg” and “cask” refer to containers of any size, the distinction being that kegs are used for beers intended to be served using external gas cylinders. Cask ales undergo part of their fermentation process in their containers, called casks.
Casks are available in several sizes, and it is common to refer to “a firkin” or “a kil” (kilderkin) instead of a cask.
The modern US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (117.34777 L), half a gallon less than the traditional wine barrel. (26 U.S.C. §5051)
Dry goods [ edit ]
Barrels are also used as a unit of measurement for dry goods (dry groceries), such as flour or produce. Traditionally, a barrel is 196 pounds (89 kg) of flour (wheat or rye), with other substances such as pork subject to more local variation. In modern times, produce barrels for all dry goods, excepting cranberries, contain 7,056 cubic inches, about 115.627 L.
In the northeastern United States, nails, bolts, and plumbing fittings were commonly shipped in small rough barrels. These were small, 18 inches high by about 10–12 inches in diameter. The wood was the quality of pallet lumber. The binding was sometimes by wire or metal hoops or both. This practice seems to have been prevalent up till the 1980s. Older hardware stores probably still have some of these barrels.
See also [ edit ]
Casks (barrels, hogsheads, butts)
Maturing Scotch whisky is kept in oak casks – sometimes called barrels, hogsheads or butts.
Casks are sourced mainly from the US and Spain, where they have previously been used to age whiskey and sherry. While Scotch whisky rules allow repeated use of casks for maturation, the law for bourbon is such that they can only use the cask once. This normally ensures a good onward supplyof casks for the Scotch whisky trade. Securing a supply of them is part of the distillers’ challenge, and getting long use out of them is important too.
Most casks come in various sizes from about 200 to 650 litres. 200 litres (barrel) and 250 (hogshead) are the most common sizes. A hogshead is essentially a barrel made from the staves of a bourbon cask with new oak ends. A butt is the standard size cask used for maturing sherry. As the interaction between wood and spirit is integral to the maturation process, smaller casks tend to mature Scotch whisky quicker. By contrast, large casks such as butts, puncheons or port pipes usually require a longer maturation process, often of 15-20 years or more.
The types of casks most commonly used for maturing Scotch whisky are as follows:
Barrel (approx. 190-200 litres | ~120-140 LPA): Also known as the ASB (American standard barrel), or bourbon barrel, due to its role as the principal size of cask used in the American bourbon whiskey industry. Barrels used for maturing bourbon are required by American law to be made from American white oak which has been charred prior to usage. As these casks cannot be re-used to make bourbon, they often experience a second life maturing Scotch whisky.
Hogshead (approx. 225-250 litres | ~142-175 LPA): After barrels, hogsheads are the second-most common type of cask used in maturing Scotch whisky. Hogsheads are generally also made from American white oak, and indeed are often built from staves originally taken from bourbon barrels. However, the larger size of hogsheads makes them better suited for a slightly longer period of maturation. Hogsheads used to mature Scotch whisky may previously have held other beverages and spirits, with sherry hogsheads the most common of these.
Butt (approx. 475-500 litres | ~302-350 LPA): Butts are the most commonly used type of cask in the sherry industry, and thus, apart from those having previously held bourbon, the type of cask most commonly utilised for maturing Scotch whisky. They are traditionally made from Spanish oak, although a significant amount of butts are also made from American white oak.
Other casks of note:
Quarter cask (approx. 45-50 litres | ~29-35 LPA): A quarter cask is a quarter of the size of the ASB, but with the same dimensions. As quarter casks have a significantly higher ratio of wood-to-liquid than most standard casks, they tend to accelerate the maturation process. However, this method of maturation can have mixed results, and quarter casks are therefore most effective with more robust spirits, or when used to ‘finish’ a whisky.
Barrique (approx. 250-300 litres | ~159-210 LPA): A barrique is a slightly larger hogshead with the long shape of a butt, which is common throughout the wine industry (and, with slightly smaller dimensions, in Cognac too). Barriques are usually constructed from French oak, although some may also be made from American white oak. Although barriques were historically uncommon in the maturation of Scotch whisky, recent decades have seen an increasing amount of single malts and blends experimenting with these casks.
Puncheon (approx. 450-500 litres| ~286-350 LPA): After butts, puncheons are the second-most common type of casks used to mature sherry. Dumpier than a butt, these are generally made with Spanish oak staves. Machine puncheons are made from American white oak and generally used in the rum industry. While machine puncheons are still rarely used for maturing Scotch, they have become more common in recent years.
Port pipe (approx. 550-650 litres | ~350-455 LPA): Port pipes are the industry standard cask for maturing port wine. Port pipes are long and similar in proportion to sherry butts, although their width is close to an ASB. Port pipes are generally only used to ‘finish’ Scotch whiskies for a final few years.
Madeira drum (approx. 600-650 litres | ~381-455 LPA): Like sherry butts and port pipes, Madeira drums are the industry standard for maturing Madeira wine. However, Madeira drums are significantly squatter than these counterparts, and are built from thick French oak staves. Madeira drums are relatively uncommon for maturing Scotch whisky and are generally used to ‘finish’ aged stocks.
Casks can be described as ‘first fill’ or ‘refill’. An American whiskey cask or barrel that is being used to mature Scotch for the first time is referred to as ‘first fill’. It becomes a ‘refill’ cask when used for a second or subsequent time. ‘First fill’ casks are more active in the maturation process of Scotch, imparting stronger flavours to the whisky from the oak and the previous contents of the barrel. ‘Refill’ barrels, by contrast, are usually less active in maturing Scotch, allowing the spirit to dominate the maturation process. The value of the casks within the maturation process can be seen in the costs for empty whisky barrels.
It is the job of a good cooper to maintain the casks well to extend their useful life and value, and to ensure they continue to mature the whisky to the right quality standards.
The casks are stacked either three high in traditional ‘dunnage’ warehouses or more commonly now in modern palletised warehouses. The key is to allow lots of cool, damp, Scottish air to circulate.
All casks are porous, allowing the spirit to evaporate which is necessary for maturation. A small number of casks may leak, and lose more whisky than they should in the first year. In modern warehouses leaky casks are usually left where they are, because moving them around to sort out a leaky one costs almost as much as a cask of newly made spirit is worth, and risks damaging others in the process.
Losses from evaporation and leakage amount to around 2% per year, with an extra 3% lost on filling as spirit is absorbed by the wood. This is known as ‘in-drink’.
Good casks, well cared for, can last for up to 50 years or longer.
Whisky barrel capacities
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USED BARRELS OF DIVERSE SHERRY VARIETIES
We offer our freshly emptied sherry casks from a variety of sherry types. Sherry barrels are ideal for maturing beer, whiskey, gin and all other distillates. All sherrys are made from a dry white wine from the preferred grapes of Palomino, Moscatel or Pedro Ximénez.
The relatively dry Amontillado has usually been aged for 10 to 15 years. It has a golden brown color and a nutty aroma.
A light, yellow, relatively young and dry sherry.
This dry sherry comes from Sanlúcar de Barrameda and is a special type of Fino.
A strong, rather semi-dry sherry with a brownish color. The aroma is reminiscent of hazelnuts.
A dark Málaga wine with a residual sugar content of at least 45 g / liter.
Aromatically it combines Amontillado and Oloroso. This sherry has a distinctive mahogany color.
A sweet full-bodied sherry with aromas of raisins and figs.
Exclusive Sherry Barrels at SASCHARUDNIK.com
We offer you freshly emptied ‘Oloroso’ or ‘Pedro Ximénez’ sherry barrels, which are ideal for aging whiskey, gin, korn or other distillates.
Sherrys are primarily made from a dry white wine of the Palomino grape. In some cases Moscatel and Pedro Ximénez are also used. After harvesting, the grapes will be dried first and then pressed in order to heavily concentrate the juice. After the fermentation process is completed, brandy is added subsequently and the alcohol concentration increases to up to 15 % or more. When it comes to aging, barrels are not completely filled-up, to have the flor yeast protecting the wine from oxidation and to have the sugar almost completely fermented.
Pedro Ximénez comes with aromas of raisins and figs and is generally sweeter than other sherrys. Oloroso is stronger, darker in color and has a very nutty aroma.
Further information about our SHERRY BARRELS:
Origin: Jerez de la Frontera, Spain
Wood: American White Oak
Sizes: 225 l to 650 l (disassembly and reassembly to variable sizes are also possible)
Sherry Butt (500 litres)
Highlands and Islands will receive a small surcharge to cover increased shipping costs
Worldwide delivery available, please call for individual pricing
Oak Sherry Barrels, 64 l, 100 l or 150 l. Craftsman made
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eBay Price: 40 £ Product condition: Used
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